Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in commercial rubber track products and raw materials
Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in commercial rubber track products and raw materials (rubber granules and adhesives) were investigated by two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron-capture negative-ionization mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ECNI-MS). The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the rubber track products were 3.64 × 103 and 4.14 × 104 μg/g, respectively. The mean SCCP concentration in the products was significantly higher than those in the rubber granules (2.78 μg/g), but in the same order of magnitude as those in the adhesives (3.34 × 103 μg/g). The SCCP concentrations in almost half of the rubber track products and four fifths of the adhesives exceeded the limit (1.5 g/kg) set in Chinese standard GB 36246-2018. The dominant SCCP and MCCP congeners in the rubber track products were similar to those in the relevant adhesives but different from those in the paired granules. Principal component analysis and contribution calculations indicated that chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in adhesives could be the main sources of CPs in rubber track products. The high CP concentrations found in rubber track products are of special concern because of the relatively high exposures for children and negative effect on human health and environment.