Unveiling elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile: Effects of different postharvest conditions
The volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile from elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) was established for two cultivars by multidimensional gas chromatography. From 47 monoterpenic, 13 sesquiterpenes and 5 norisoprenoids components, 38 are reported for the first time on elderflowers. Elderflower seasonality implies proper handling and storage conditions, for further processing, thus the impact of freezing, freeze-drying, air drying and vacuum packing, was evaluated on these potential aroma metabolites. The most suitable preservation methods, regarding the total metabolites content, were vacuum packing and freezing for intermediary storage times (24–32 weeks) with a reported overall decrease of the volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids of up to 58.6%; and freezing, for longer period (52 weeks), with a decrease of up to 47.4% (compared to fresh elderflowers). This study presents the most detailed terpenic and norisoprenoids elderflower profiling, and linalool oxides were proposed as markers for a more expedite assess to the impact of postharvest conditions.