Spatial distributions and transport implications of short- and medium chain chlorinated paraffins in soils and sediments from an e-waste dismantling area in China
To investigate the spatial distributions, potential transport and ecological risks of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in and around e-waste dismantling area, we collected soil samples within 5 km of the e-waste dismantling centers and sediment samples in the surrounding area from the lower reaches of Jiaojiang River. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture negative-ionization mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ECNI-MS). The SCCP and MCCP concentration ranges in soils were 68.5 to 2.20 × 105 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 507 to 4.40 × 106 ng/g dw, respectively. The ranges for the levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in sediments were 32.5–1.29 × 104 ng/g dw and 271–2.72 × 104 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between total organic carbon (TOC) and CP concentrations (P > 0.05). The spatial distributions showed that the CP levels were closely related to e-waste pollution. Correspondence analysis revealed that shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in sediments from sites distant from e-waste pollution source, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soils and sediments collected near the pollution source, which indicated that complex environmental processes, such as transportation via atmosphere and/or water, and deposition, resulted in different CP profiles in different sampling locations and environment matrixes (e.g., soil and sediments). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that e-waste pollution could be the same source of SCCPs and MCCPs. The preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs in soils within 1 km of e-waste dismantling centers at current levels posed a considerable risk to soil-dwelling organisms, and the sediment MCCPs in Jiaojiang estuary at present levels also posed a risk to sediment-dwelling organisms.