Fructose liquid and solid formulations differently affect gut integrity, microbiota composition and related liver toxicity: a comparative in vivo study
Authors: RaffaellaMastrocolaab, IlarioFerrocinoc, EricaLibertod, FaustoChiazzad, Alessia SofiaCentoa, DeboraCollottad, GiuliaQueriod, DeboraNigroa, ValeriaBitontoe, Juan CarlosCutrine, KalliopiRantsiouc, MariaconcettaDurantef, EmanuelaMasinif, ManuelaAragnoa, ChiaraCorderod, LucaCocolinc1, MassimoCollino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes.
In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling.
Fructose feeding led to alterations of the gut microbiota depending on the fructose formulation, with increased colonization by Clostridium, Oscillospira and Clostridiales phyla in the S-Fr group and Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae and Dorea in the L-Fr. S-Fr evoked the highest accumulation of advanced glycation end products and barrier injury in the ileum intestinal mucosa. These effects were associated to a stronger activation of the lipopolysaccharide-dependent proinflammatory TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the liver of S-Fr mice than of L-Fr mice. In contrast, L-Fr intake induced higher levels of hepatosteatosis and markers of fibrosis than S-Fr. Fructose-induced ex novo lipogenesis with production of SCFA and MCFA was confirmed by metagenomic analysis.
These results suggest that consumption of fructose under different forms, liquid or solid, may differently affect gut microbiota, thus leading to impairment in intestinal mucosa integrity and liver homeostasis.